Monkeypox explained clearly

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    What is Monkeypox?

    In this video, Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram explains what the new emerging infection Monkeypox is. Monkeypox is a type of orthopoxvirus. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and related to smallpox but not as dangerous. This virus is much larger in size than the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It was first isolated back in 1958 in crab-eating macaques. There are two strains of Monkeypox. One is called the West African Strain and the other Central African Strain. The West African strain appears to be what the current monkeypox outbreak strain is and fortunately has a mortality rate of about 1-3% whereas the Central African Strain has a mortality of 10%. These infections can come from any small animals or rodents and not just monkeys. 

    Scientists have been studying this virus for several decades.  In 2003 there was an outbreak of monkeypox in the U.S.  A study reviewed this and noted that symptoms included a rash that proceeded to a raised lesion and then to a pustule over a few days. They found that in that study there was a group of people who had been inoculated with a smallpox vaccine that seemed to have some protection from Monkeypox. 

    What are the symptoms of Monkeypox?

    Fever, rash, enlarged lymph nodes, headaches, and muscle aches are the most common symptoms.  The virus is transmitted through humans or animals (zoonosis). Through humans it can be spread with close contact, touching sores or contaminated clothes. In animals, it is through close contact, biting and scratching, or eating the meat of the infected animals (ie rodents, prairie dogs, and small animals). The incubation period varies depending on the mode of transmission. Large respiratory droplets have been implicated in transmission also. The current outbreak in the UK has detected the majority of the cases in gay and bisexual men. In Spain, most of the cases were linked to a superspreader event at a sauna. 

    Monkeypox treatment

    Treatment for monkeypox is supportive care and consists of monitoring for dehydration and replacing electrolytes. There are some antiviral medications that can be used off-label for treatment that are discussed.

    Vaccines that can be used for monkeypox are those that were originally created for smallpox infections. Dr. Seheult discusses the differences between the ACAM2000 and Jynneos vaccine. He then discusses post-exposure prophylaxis.  

    Maintaining A Healthy Immune System

    It is important to remember that the best defense against monkeypox and any other infection is to maintain a healthy immune system by getting adequate nutrition, exercise,  drinking enough water, sunshine, fresh air, appropriate sleep, and avoiding stress. 

     

    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Monkeypox: Doctors warn of ‘massive impact’ on sexual health services as staff self-isolate (Yahoo) | https://uk.news.yahoo.com/monkeypox-d…

    Monkeypox outbreak linked to superspreader event at adult sauna (Yahoo) | https://news.yahoo.com/monkeypox-outb…
    MISCExplainer: What to Know About Monkeypox (Visual Capitalist) | https://www.visualcapitalist.com/expl…
    Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis (Lancet) | https://www.thelancet.com/journals/la…
    First monkeypox genome from latest outbreak shows links to 2018 strain (NewScientist) | https://www.newscientist.com/article/…
    Monkeypox virus evades antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses by suppressing cognate T cell activation (PNAS) | https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas…
    FDA approves first live, non-replicating vaccine to prevent smallpox and monkeypox (FDA) | https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press…
    Nov 3, 2021 ACIP Meeting – Orthopoxviruses Vaccines (CDC) | https://youtu.be/4SCUOppgtxE
    Israel reports first case of monkeypox, suspects others (ABC) | https://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireSto…
    New York officials investigate case of suspected monkeypox (Miami Herald) | https://www.miamiherald.com/latest-ne…

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